Dr Jacques Charrier
Practical advice on bringing up. Hygiene. Pathologies and their prophylaxis.
According to the
inexorable statistical data from the total number of newborn puppies
23% die during the first and 10% during the second week of life.
Knowing it, let's try to reduce to a minimum these "sad"
Principal and widespread causes of newborn
First of all, - various infectious diseases,
inherent anomalies of development, excessively small or insufficient
weight at birth, also all possible infringements of bitch health,
causing agalactia ( complete stopping of lactation), hypogalactia
(reduction of milk productivity) and also "sad-known" " syndrome of
toxic milk". Rather frequently, puppy death can be caused by bitch
itself, better to say,by its inexperience and awkwardness as a
result of which it can inadvertently press down a newborn. In most
cases it happens by an oversight of the owners that leave their
"ward" for a long time without supervision; even and harmless
corpulence, that makes a dog awkward and clumsy.
puppies should be left under the bitch?
Since bitches, as a
rule, have 8 worker nipples/teats it is reasonable and correctly to
leave no more than 8 puppies.
What puppies should be rejected
Certainly, and, first of all, those, which have
clearly marked morphological anomalies and disqualifying faults. You
shouldn't leave puppies, whose weight is on 10% below than average
litter one. It is determined as follows: total weight of all newborn
puppies is divided into their number. Rejection of puppies with
weight below average of the litter isn't only desirable, but also is
obligatory because these puppies are more predisposed to various
infections of newborns.
Is supervision for newborn puppies
Without any doubt, is very essential during first
days, for complete reliance that each one receives vitally necessary
share of colostrums. It's quite important to keep this rule, because
colostrums of feeding bitch is rich in antibodies acquired thanks to
done vaccinations and preventive inoculations. Transfer of immunity
with colostrums from bitch to puppy lasts during first 36 hours
after delivery. Newborn puppy starts to search mother's teat. If its
attempts aren't crowded with success, the breeder must help it,
because fast colostrums receiving and its assimilation at this stage
are very necessary for normal blood circulation.
When and how
frequently is it necessary to weigh puppies?
During first months
-daily, it is very desirable at the same time. Daily additional
weight in the very first days should be about 10% from weigh at
birth, which by the 10th day should be redoubled. If weigh curve
informs that weigh doesn't increase and demonstrates so -called
"calm", so it's urgent to do the following:
born… They came into the world completely helpless: deaf, blind,
absolutely uncapable to independent thermoregulations.
- bitch should be
examined to exclude and to begin to treat any disease, the
consequences of which is hypogalactia or bad milk quality
concerned that bitch gets enough quantity of food appropriate to all
requirements of the organism in the period of posterity feeding
- begin to feed puppies with substitutes of bitch milk
avoid puppies overcooling?
Normal temperature of a puppy
necessary to know and to remember that:
- 35.5° at birth
- 35.5°-37° during 1st week
- 36°-38° during 2nd and 3d week
- 38° (normal temperature of an adult dog) since 4th week
Preventive measures of overcooling
- At body temperature
35 a puppy isn't capable to sulk
- At 34.5 bitch
rejects it and refuses to feed it
- At 22 puppy falls into
unconscious state of coma
During first days after birth puppies should be kept at temperature
31, thus temperature in the room is to be 25 and for additional
heating it is necessary to use lamps or radiators directed at
puppies. By 10th day temperature rate of puppies keeping gradually
reduces to 25 and by 1st month to 20. A puppy that is cold whimpers
loudly and calms down as soon it gets warm.
How to avoid
scratches on and of the bitch
These scratches appear as a result
of forward extremities pressure, because of their specific
movements. Puppies should regularly have the nails cut, otherwise,
the bitch'll avoid them very soon.
What pathologies of
newborn puppies do the breeders come across more often?
Causes: Puppies content of glycogens is very insignificant, besides this
necessary source of energy runs low very quickly, if from the very
beginning puppies are short of food
Symptoms: Dehydration, weight decease, cold, atony, languor, passivity and
Treatment: Sweetened water and glucose
Prophylaxis: Substitutes of mother's milk as
soon as puppy weight begins to reduce
(within first 4 days)
Causes: Too shortly cut
umbilical cord or its infection and also intrauterine, inborn
vitamin K deficit
Symptoms: Various bleedings,
hemorrhage, languor, weakness, subsequently - coma
Treatment: Alive puppies must get vitamin K
Prophylaxis: During pregnancy bitch should get vitamin
K in small doses
3. Syndrome of "toxic" milk
at 2-14 days)
involution, mastitis, as a result, toxins get into
Symptoms: Flatulence, tense stomach oedematic
puppies must be isolated from
mother, don't supercool them; puppies should be fed with substitutes
of mother's milk; it is necessary to treat the bitch; puppies are to
be put under recovered bitch
recognition and diagnostics of any infection of feeding bitch
4. Bacterial infections
often - badly cut or carelessly disinfected umbilical cord, mistakes
of antiseptic processing of tail cut
and umbilical inflammation of infectious aetology, peritonitis,
Exclusive cleanness and
strict hygiene, both in the delivery room and in the post -natal
room and especially in the "lair" where bitch and puppies are kept
Very careful disinfections of any skin or mucous damages
5. Infections of virus aetology:
puppy complex", "syndrome of weakening
puppy": progressing weakness (during first 10 days after
- Herpes (at 5-20
Causes: Affection by virus of liver,
kidneys herpes, cerebral-brain affection
Symptoms: Puppy sulks plaintively and interruptedly, infringement of movements
coordination, in the beginning - depressed condition, then
exhaustion, breakdown. Usually it dies 18-24 hours later. Alive
puppies are detected to have complications on kidneys.
Treatment: Warm constantly ill puppy
Prophylaxis: Puppies are to be kept in warm places
with necessary air temperature that prevents from herpes
introduction and spread.
can be excluded at once if bitch was vaccinated before pregnancy.
(between 5 and 8 weeks) This disease can develop
directly when antibodies transferred by previously vaccinated
mother, but organism of vaccinated puppy hasn't elaborated its own
antibodies. Thus, immune protection in this period is very weak,
therefore, this period is called "critical".
Causes: Toxemia along with bowel and myocardium affection by
extremely stabile virus.
Treatment: Fight with dehydration,
vomiting, and bacterial infection.
Obligatory vaccination at 6 and revaccination at 8 and at12 weeks
with appropriate vaccine that contained weakened
Disease, that the Englishmen call "fading puppy
complex" appears because of and accompanies progressing syndrome
with no clear aetiology and unknown origin, affects newborn puppy.
Externally absolutely healthy puppies suddenly begin to grow sickly,
pine, weaken and in the end, die. To a greatest regret, this disease
is rather widespread. But , perhaps, the most awful thing is that in
50% of cases the cause of death isn't only ascertained, but even
simply supposed, because neither macro- ni microscopic analysis
yield results, mark any damages deviations or anomalies of external
or internal organs. It seems to us, that aetiology of syndrome of
weakening puppy is multi-causative. Though, there is a direct
evidence of infectious origin of disease with doubtless influence on
cardio-vascular and bronchi-pulmonary systems, aggravated by
Even if mother was
dehelminthologied, probability of puppies infecting is still great.
Causes: If infection is intrauterine larvae of
helmints ripen gradually and are on different stages, demanded
different scheme of treating, while bitch is dehelminthologied
according to certain but not individual scheme.
Symptoms: Hyporexia, hoove, diarrhea, cough; puppies don't gain in
Treatment and prophylaxis: Since
8th day and each two weeks puppies should be
dehelminthologied. Bitch should be treated with the same medicines
as puppies are, because it constantly gets infected by eating
From 15 to 20 days
open eyes. They already can hear and even try to go instead of
creeping, as it was before, from place to place. Puppies get
interested in the world around them; with curiosity investigate all
things around. In the very period puppies start getting in contact
with man; this moment is very important for psycho-emotional
development of the dog. It is very important that puppies get used
gradually to a touch of human hand and, in this case, that's why it
is very convenient to weigh them every day. Iris can be of blue
colour, but it is temporary, passing. The true, final colour iris
gets a bit later.
From 3rd weeks… The process of
excommunication from mother starts. Success of this process is in
stress avoidance and frustration of alimentary canal, this process
depends on its forward character. Usually bitch itself takes very
active part in this process: it belches easy assimilated food.
Breeders begin to give additional food as substitutes of mother's
milk; it can be industrial ones or home made. Puppies, in spite of
initial awkwardness, quickly understand what they are expected to
do, because the instinct of licking is inherent and lays on the
genetic level. At the following stage puppies are offered liquid
dairy porridge: in the beginning -once a day, then twice and, at
last three times a day. Then completed manufacture made food
-"puppy"(especially for puppies) is mixed with warm water and it
makes the process of digestion more preferable.
week… Puppies start eating independently. They have cut
teeth and can eat dry food without preliminary mixing with warm
water, food in cans (liquid and half-dry), home made food.
Why do breeders prefer dry food nowadays?
Modern view of puppy
comparison with can (liquid or half0dry) food the risk of poisoning
is minimum. Besides, such a food massages gums and cleans them
- In comparison with home made food there is a an
indisputable advantage: breeders needn't rack their brains over the
question- how to make balanced ration, observing correct doses of
calcium, phosphorus, vitamins and especially, microelements
-substances that in small doses are necessary for function of any
organism. But this questioned must be paid attention to, because the
surplus or lack of microelements can cause catastrophic consequences
on dog health. Using manufacture made food there is no need to think
about additional mineral and vitamin additions. Especially, it
concerns vitamin "A" and "D", systematic overdose is very dangerous
and does irreparable harm to animals, causing various deviations and
deformations of extremities. Manufacture made food is ideal to use,
because it is perfectly balanced. It contains complete and
sufficient for this period of growing set of proteins, vitamins and
mineral salts. For this very reason, any mineral or vitamin
additions aren't useful, but, on the contrary, are dangerous, as
they upset the balance of organism. During 1st month a puppy of
Dobermann is to gain in weight on the average from 100 to 110gr.,
during 2nd -from 150 to 160 gr.
Recently veterinaries knowledge of bone anomalies and
deviations has broadened consirably. Principal regulations of new
1. Never and under whatever conditions don't limit puppy ration
only to meat.
2. Abstain from excessive such additions to food as
calcium, vitamins "D", "A". Their surplus upsets phosphorus-calcium
metabolism and it can cause anomalies of ossification of growth
cartilages of epiphysis, that are on joints ends of long tubular
bones, can cause curvature of forward extremities, can prevent from
mineral salts assimilating, can cause significant growth reduction
of growing dog, stomach distention and volvulus. It is natural that
lack of calcium, vitamins "A","D" in the organism doesn't pass
without causing consequences. It can cause such diseases as rackets,
though, objectively speaking, rackets is observed very seldom
3. Food of growing dog must be of high energy, at least
proteins -29%. The lack of amino acids does irreparable harm to
harmonious development of bone and muscular systems and also lowers
immune protection of the organism on the whole.
4. Puppy overfeeding is
extremely harmful. Overfeeding causes overweight, leading to
obesity. Contrary to the belief of many owners, puppy with
overweight turned into an adult isn't taller or has better developed
bone-muscular system. Moreover, obesity accelerates the process of
growth, that, in turn, can cause occurrence and development of
numerous and very serious infringements of bone system:
Thus, the main task and aim during puppy bringing up
is to supply it with balanced, average for the breed rate of growth
and development. It is much more useful to get facilitated, but
balanced and of very good quality food rather than to be overfed.
- deformating osteochondrosis
- wrong position of feet
- weak hock joint
- dysplasia of hip joints
Without any doubt, rate of growth of puppies that get
facilitated food is a bit slower, but it doesn't influence on the
growth of an adult dog in the future.
5. Non-keeping of feeding
scheme, feeding out the scheme and in unlimited portions is
In spite of belief of many breeders and owners
that the meal "at will" reduces the risk of anorexia and , moreover,
meets all food requirements, such a way of feeding usually causes
very dangerous overweight. Instead of permitting puppies to overeat
it is much more reasonable and useful to accustom it to strict
certain scheme of feeding at fixed time and with regulated portion:
food is left for about 20 minutes.
feeding. It is very desirable that the puppy'd get balanced
food of very-good quality (preferably dry food) specially made for
growing organism and not demanding mineral and vitamin additions,
necessary for normal growth and development of puppy.
- 3-4 times a day - at the age 6weeks-3months
- 2-3 times
a day-3 - 6 months
- twice a day - after 6 months
desirable weight parameters for breed Dobermann are adduced in
scheme 1 (in the magazine -diagram page 27)
Studying and using
the scheme "Weekly weight addition for Dobermann puppies (males and
bitches) at the age 0-9 weeks" it is necessary to pay attention to
the data of males weight addition and bitches ones are done
according to maximum limit. Thus, weight 10-15% below than the
abovementioned ones is normal.
By 9th day puppy weight is to
redouble and by 1st month to increase in 7 times. 9 weeks old puppy
is to weigh 7500-9000gr. (males) and 6700-8000gr. (bitches); average
parameters are more desirable.
Scientists believe that rigid
control of quantity and quality of food favors correct development,
doesn't influence negatively on the growth of adult dog, excludes
the risk of obesity and infringements of bone systems, accompanying
this disease that is usually observed if dog is overfed.
are norms of products using for puppy feeding?
Pr.Wolter , one
of the most rewarded research workers of feeding and nutrition
faculty ENV d'Alfort, carried out unique systematizing research,
offered new method and technique of rational puppies feeding.
principal types of feeding were assumed as a basis:
Homemade food is less preferable,
because it can't be well-balanced and is of lowered energy in
comparison with ready-made concentrates. However, we consider
that it is expedient to adduce structure of food made by owners at
- 3 types
of ready-made food:
- 1. dry food (dry concentrate
in flakes or granules of very good quality)
- 2. half-dry,
canned food from meat with cereal
- 3. Canned food from meat without
- 2 types of food that demands additional processing
- 1. Home made food on the basis of raw
meat(mutton) with addition of cereals.
- 2. Home made food on the
basis of raw meat with flakes.
Mix1 (1000 gr.)
- Minced mutton - 315 gr.
- Splintered rice cooked, crumbly - 315 gr.
- Vegetable mix of
string beans and carrots - 315 gr.
- 1 tablespoon of sunflower or corn
oil - 20 gr.
- 1 tablespoon of vitamin and mineral additions - 20 gr.
- 1 tablespoon of dry yeast - 20 gr.
Pr.Wolter distinguished 3 basic periods of food
requirement of the dog:
- Beef - 400 gr.
- Cereal flakes or dry rice - 300
- 1 table spoon of sunflower or corn oil - 20 gr.
- 1 table
spoon of vitamin and mineral addition - 20 gr.
- 1 table spoon of dry
yeast - 20 gr.
Taking into consideration the abovementioned data, Pr.Wolter has
worked out on the basis of 5 traditional food rations table of daily
puppy ration. The table is unique, because not only breed but age of
the puppy is taken into consideration; daily food consumption is
done in grammes (instead of kcals)
- Phase1 - "jump" - period of the
greatest growth and development of the animal. During this period
daily food requirement raises constantly (to 6 months)
2 - period of consecutive development, when the peak of growth
and development has passed, but requirements of organism increase
because of actively proceeding metabolisms. Puppy needs energy
(6 - 16 months)
- Phase 3 - adult dog, it is a period when dog
doesn't need additional food to cover energy expenses of organisms.
Looking after orphaned
puppies and puppies that are short of milk.
- Keep them in the
- Place is to be clean - "Replacement" of the
mother. Bitch licks its puppies and stimulates them to urinate and
to defecate. Breeders are to help orphaned puppies, do them a
massage to stimulate abovementioned processes.
- Feeding with dairy
mixes- substitutes of mother's milk of special ingredients.
They can be ready made (more expensive) or home made. In any case,
mix is to be homogeneous and warmed (35 C).
- Be attentive: all things
used for feeding are to be of ideal cleanness.
- Use only convenient
dummy. (you can buy it, it means, it must have a special aperture of
the right size specially made for puppies feeding). Also you can
take a usual dummy and do the aperture yourself. The size shouldn't
be too small, because a puppy'll get tired very quickly and refuse
to sulk. On the other hand too large aperture and, naturally too
fast current of milk can cause puppy's choking. You can define the
right size of the aperture by turning a bottle upside down. If milk
drips slowly, the size is right.
- Puppy is to get accustomed to the
dummy. To achieve it, it is necessary to take it put it in the
vertical position (as if it stands on the back feet) Then, handling
its head with the large and index fingers try to press on its cheeks
in places of lips connection, to semi-open its mouth and enter the
dummy. If puppy doesn't sulk you should with you other hand slightly
press the dummy and squeeze out several drops of milk. Feeding of
orphaned puppies takes a lot of time and patience: approximately 30
min. for feeding a litter of 4 puppies. Feeding with substitutes of
mother's milk is to be carried out 12 times a day. Actually,
experience shows that 7 feedings during 1st week, 6 - during 2nd and
5-6 during 3rd is quite enough.
- It is necessary to understand that
orphaned puppies can have many psychological difficulties. Actually,
bringing up puppy without mother and sometimes, even without
brothers or sisters in uttermost isolation, outside of the contacts,
appropriate and necessary adequate development can cause serious
psychological problems. Such dogs can have difficulties in
relationships with other dogs; can be too aggressive or coward.
Other extreme is their too excessive attachment to the man. Such a
dog depends completely on the man, perfectly feeling it. Such
behavior can cause fear of loneliness, lack of self-confidence. Such
a dog left alone will whimper, bark. It is very difficult to bring
up such an orphan. Nevertheless, even in such a serious situation it
is necessary to help puppy to communicate with other dogs. It is
very desirable that your puppy 'd communicate with other young
It is well known that during first 36 hours
puppies get antibodies with colostrums from their mother. Antibodies
acquired thanks to vaccination or diseases (that mother had) provide
immune protection of puppies from various bacterial and virus
infections, so-called passive immunization. However, when you start
to separate puppies from mother immune protection of puppies becomes
weaker and at this time puppies are to be vaccinated to avoid
infection. Unfortunately, it is difficult to decide when to do it,
because antibodies can't provide immune protection, but at the same
time they can neutralize the vaccine. In this case the only way to
cease the risk is to follow the certain scheme of vaccination
(calendar of vaccination).
Kinds of vaccines.
All these vaccines have their
own advantages, positive things and faults. However, in the future
only stable synthetic vaccines of very high cleanness will be used,
that don't cause allergetic reactions, with no residual virulence
that causes virus carrying.
- vaccines with killed virus
- vaccines with attenuated virus
- inactivated vaccine
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